USC Dornsife College Of Letters Arts and Sciences

University of Southern California

Faithful Action


1 Lawson, Erma J. (2007) “Wading in the Waters: Spirituality and Older Black Katrina Survivors,” Journal of Health Care for the Poor and Underserved,18.2: 341-354. Select Bipartisan Committee to Investigate the Preparation for and Response to Hurricane Katrina. Testimony of Major General Harold A. Cross, the Adjutant General of Mississippi. In: Select Bipartisan Committee to Investigate the Preparation for and Response to Hurricane Katrina. Hearing-Hurricane Katrina: preparedness and response by the Department of Defense, the Coast Guard, and the National Guard of Louisiana, Mississippi, and Alabama. Washington, DC: 109th Congress, Select Bipartisan Committee, 2005 Oct 27. U.S. Senate Subcommittee on Bioterriosm and Public Health Preparedness (SBPHP). Hearing on Hurricane Katrina: public health and emergency preparedness. Washington, D.C.: 109th Congress, SBPHP, 2006 Feb 9. Horner K. “Evacuee survey gauges storm’s mental toll.” Dallas Morning News. 2006 March 10:A1, A5.

2 Ibid

3 Lawson (2007),

4–6 Ibid

7 Hull, 2006

8 Evans, Kromm, & Sturgis, 2008. Jervis, 2008

9 Szabo, 2007

10 Hull, Pete (2006) “Heralding Unheard Voices: The Role of Faith-Based Organization and Nongovernmental Organizations during Disaster (final report),” Homeland Security Institute, Prepared for the Department of Homeland Security Science and Technology Directorate.

11–15 Ibid

16 Worden, 2006

17 Ibid

18 Table found in Szabo, 2007

19 Data from:

20 ICNA Relief USA, After Action Summary Report

21 National Disaster Interfaith Network, Tip Sheet 1

22 Silver and Wicke, 2009

23 Hull, 2006

24–28 Ibid

29 Hull, 2006

30 From Jamie Aten, Humanitarian Disaster Institute, Wheaton College. Personal correspondence.

31 Aniskoff, Paulette. Kaufman, David. Lumpkins, Donald M. (2011) “A Whole Community Approach to Emergency Management: Principles, Concepts and Pathways for Action,” Federal Emergency Management Agency

32–34 Ibid

35 See Appendix 1 for counts and categorizations of congregations in four areas of California: Los Angeles, Oakland, Irvine, and Imperial County.

36 For example Rev. Cecil Murray’s role during the 1992 L.A. riots, see “Forging a New Moral and Political Agenda: The Civic Role of Religion in Los Angeles, 1992-2010.” Center for Religion and Civic Culture, University of Southern California.

37 Severson, 2011

38 Ibid

39 De Vita and Kramer, 2008

40-42 Ibid

43 See “Politics of the Spirit: Religion and Multi-Ethnicity in Los Angeles,” (1994); and “Forging a New Moral and Political Agenda” (2010), USC Center for Religion and Civic Culture, for descriptions of Murray’s many and varied community organized activities.

44 Covello, 1992

45 Philbin and Urban. Leavitt, 2003. Blanchard et al., 2005. O’Toole, Mair, & Inglesby, 2002.

46–50 Ibid

51 In partnership with Peter Gudaitis and NYDIS, the authors have adapted the instrument to include measures that fit congregations into a four-tier system. See page 59 for a description of this system.

52 Hull, 2006

53–56 Ibid

57 Hunt, 2006

58–62 Ibid

63 Aten, Moore et al., 2008

64 Massey and Sutton, 2007. Chandler, McMillion, Stuart.

65 Schuster et al., 2001

66 Supra Note 59

67 Ai, et al

68 Aten, Graham et al.

69 Ibid

70 From Lockwood and Miller

71 Ibid

72 Philbin and Urban

73 “Communities of faith often found themselves in a position of offering counseling—both formally and informally—to displaced residents. For example, Catholic Charities Archdiocese of New Orleans reported that they offered crisis intervention and counseling to 864,547 people in a 2 ½ year period following Katrina. Similarly, Cain and Barthelemy (2008) reported that 40 percent of the churches in their study provided counseling to victims of the storm.” Chandler, McMillion, Stuart.

74 Ibid

75 Abbamonte, 2009

76 Ibid

77 Hull, 2006

78 From Hull, 2006

79–80 Ibid

81 See “Opening the Gates: Congregations Confronting Gang Violence,” University of Southern California, Center for Religion and Civic Culture, 2012.

82 Found on: Date Accessed: May 4, 2012

83 Available at =wrapper&Itemid=41; accessed 5/4/2012.

84 De Vita and Kramer, 2008

85 Ibid

86 Monroe, 2010

87 Monroe, 2010

88 Ibid

89 Jayasinghe, 2007

90 Severson, 2011

91–95 Ibid

96 This statement reads: “Respect is foundational to disaster spiritual care. Spiritual care providers demonstrate respect for diverse cultural and religious values by recognizing the right of each faith group and individual to hold to their existing values and traditions. Spiritual care providers: 1) refrain from manipulation, disrespect or exploitation of those impacted by disaster and trauma, 2) respect the freedom from unwanted gifts of religious literature or symbols, evangelistic and sermonizing speech, and/or forced acceptance of specific moral values and traditions. 3) respect diversity and differences, including but not limited to culture, gender, age, sexual orientation, spiritual/religious practices and disability.

97 Breed, 2008

98–100 Ibid

accessed 5/4/2012.

102; accessed 5/4/2012.

103 Hull, 2006

104 For an application of this model, see Appendix 1, Four Geographic Areas. We have applied it fully to the database of congregations and FBOs in Imperial County.

105 From:; see also and The IDC also works with other organizations such as the San Diego Office of Emergency Services and the Red Cross.

106–114 Ibid


116 From:

117 Ibid

118 Aten, Leavell et al.

119 Ibid

120 De Vita and Kramer, 2008

121 Aten and Topping, 2010

122–123 Ibid

Brie Loskota is the former executive director (2016-2021) of the USC Center for Religion and Civil Culture.

Hebah Farrag was the assistant director of research of the USC Center for Religion and Civic Culture through 2023.

Richard Flory is the executive director of the USC Center for Religion and Civic Culture.